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Large surface treatment summary
Surface treatment is the formation of a layer of one or more special properties on the surface of a material by physical or chemical means. Surface treatment can improve the appearance, texture, function and other aspects of the product.
Appearance: color, pattern, logo, gloss\line (3D, 2D);
Texture: hand, roughness, life (quality), streamlined, etc.;
Function: hardening, anti-fingerprint, anti-scratch;
 
Metal surface treatment
 
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First, anodizing
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Anodizing: mainly anodizing aluminum, which is based on electrochemical principle to form a layer of Al2O3 (alumina) film on the surface of aluminum and aluminum alloy. This oxide film has special properties such as protection, decoration, insulation and wear resistance.
 
Process flow:
金属表面处理
Metal surface treatment
Monochrome, gradient:
Polishing / sand blasting / drawing → degreasing → anodizing → neutralization → dyeing → sealing → drying
Two colors:
1 polishing / sand blasting / drawing → degreasing → shading → anodizing 1 → anodizing 2 → sealing → drying
2 polishing / sand blasting / drawing → degreasing → anodizing 1 → laser engraving → anodizing 2 → sealing → drying
 
Technical features:
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1, increase the strength,
2. Realize any color except white.
3, to achieve nickel-free sealing, to meet the requirements of non-nickel in Europe, the United States and other countries.
 
Technical difficulties and key points for improvement:
The yield level of anodizing is related to the cost of the final product. The focus of improving the oxidation yield is the appropriate amount of oxidant, suitable temperature and current density. This requires the aluminum alloy die-casting plant to continuously explore and seek breakthroughs in the production process.
Anodizing related manufacturers
1. BYD
2, Foxconn
3. Guangdong Jinmei
 
Second, electrophoresis (ED-Electrophoresisdeposition)
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Electrophoresis: used in stainless steel, aluminum alloy, etc., can make the product appear in various colors, and maintain the metallic luster, while enhancing the surface properties, has a good anti-corrosion performance.
Process: pretreatment → electrophoresis → drying
Technical features:
advantage:
1, rich in color;
2, no metal texture, can be combined with sandblasting, polishing, drawing, etc.;
3, processing in the liquid environment, can achieve the surface treatment of complex structures;
4, the process is mature, mass production.
Disadvantages:
The ability to cover defects is general, and the electroforming of die-casting parts requires higher pre-treatment.
 
Electrophoresis processing related manufacturers
1. Ship South Jicheng Technology
2, Guangdong Jinmei
 
Third, micro-arc oxidation (MAO)
金属表面处理
Micro-arc oxidation: The process of applying a high voltage to form a ceramized surface film layer in an electrolyte solution (generally a weakly alkaline solution), which is the result of a synergistic effect of physical discharge and electrochemical oxidation.
Process: pre-treatment → hot water wash → MAO → drying
Technical features:
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advantage:
1, ceramic texture, dull appearance, no high-gloss products, delicate touch, anti-fingerprint;
2, a wide range of substrates: Al, Ti, Zn, Zr, Mg, Nb, and their alloys;
3, the pre-treatment is simple, the product has excellent corrosion resistance, weather resistance and good heat dissipation performance.
Disadvantages:
At present, the color is limited, only black, gray and other mature, bright colors are currently difficult to achieve; cost is mainly affected by high power consumption, which is one of the most costly surface treatment.
Micro-arc oxidation treatment related manufacturers
1. BYD
2, Guangdong Jinmei
 
Fourth, PVD vacuum plating
金属表面处理
Physical vapor deposition (PVD): An industrial manufacturing process that uses a physical process to deposit thin films.
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Schematic diagram of PVD principle
Process flow:
Pre-PVD cleaning→Intake vacuuming→washing target and ion cleaning→coating→coating finish, cooling out→posting (polishing, AFP)
Technical features:
PVD (PhysicalVaporDeposition, physical vapor deposition) can be coated on the metal surface with high hard plating and high wear resistance cermet decorative coating.
PVD processing manufacturer
1. Zhongnan International
2, good reputation
3. Beijing North Microelectronics
4. Tianma Microelectronics
5. Shanghai Jinke Nano Coating Technology
 
Fifth, electroplating (Electroplating)
金属表面处理
Electroplating: A technique in which a metal film is adhered to the surface of a metal by electrolysis to prevent corrosion, improve wear resistance, electrical conductivity, light reflectivity, and enhance aesthetics.
Process: pretreatment → cyanide-free copper → cyanide-free white copper tin → chrome plating
Technical features:
advantage:
1. High gloss and high quality metal appearance;
2. The substrate is SUS, Al, Zn, Mg, etc.; the cost is lower than PVD.
Disadvantages: poor environmental protection and high risk of environmental pollution.
Electroplating related manufacturers
Guangdong Jinmei
 
Sixth, powder coating (Powdercoating)
金属表面处理
 
Powder coating: The powder coating is sprayed onto the surface of the workpiece by a powder spraying device (electrostatic spray machine). Under the action of static electricity, the powder will be uniformly adsorbed on the surface of the workpiece to form a powder coating; the powder coating passes through the high temperature. The baking leveling solidifies and becomes the final coating with different effects (different kinds of effects of powder coating)
Process: upper part → electrostatic dust removal → spraying → low temperature leveling → baking
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Technical features:
advantage:
1, rich in color, high gloss, matte optional;
2, low cost, suitable for building furniture products and heat sink shells;
3. High utilization rate, 100% utilization, environmental protection;
4. Strong ability to mask defects;
5, can imitate the effect of wood grain.
Disadvantages:
Currently used for electronic products is relatively small.
 
Powder coating related manufacturers
1. Guangdong Jinmei
2, Langfabo
 
 
Seven, metal wire drawing
 
金属表面处理
Drawing: It is a kind of surface treatment method that forms a line on the surface of the workpiece by grinding the product and plays a decorative effect. According to the difference of the texture after drawing, it can be divided into: straight line drawing, chaotic drawing, ripple, and swirling.
Technical features:
The wire drawing process can obtain a non-mirror-like metallic luster on the metal surface, and the wire drawing treatment can also eliminate the fine flaws on the metal surface.
Metal wire drawing related manufacturers
1. Hangzhou Huafeng
2, Guangdong Jinmei
 
Eight, sandblasting
金属表面处理
Metal surface treatment
Sand blasting: using compressed air as the power to form a high-speed jet beam to spray the spray at a high speed to the surface of the workpiece to be treated, so that the appearance or shape of the outer surface of the workpiece surface changes, obtaining a certain degree of cleanliness and different roughness. A process.
Technical features:
1. Achieve different reflections or matt.
2. It can clean the tiny burrs on the surface of the workpiece and make the surface of the workpiece smoother, eliminating the damage of the burr and improving the grade of the workpiece.
3. Clear the residual dirt left in the pre-treatment, improve the smoothness of the workpiece, and make the workpiece exposed uniform and uniform metallic color, so that the appearance of the workpiece is more beautiful and beautiful.
Sandblasting related manufacturers
1. Guangdong Jinmei
2, Hongda sandblasting
3, Cancan Industry and Trade
 
 
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Polishing: The finishing of the surface of a workpiece using a flexible polishing tool and abrasive particles or other polishing media.
For different polishing processes: rough polishing (basic polishing process), medium polishing (finishing process) and fine polishing (glazing process), the best polishing effect can be achieved by selecting a suitable polishing wheel, while improving the polishing efficiency.
Process flow:
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Technical features: Improve the dimensional accuracy or geometric accuracy of the workpiece to obtain a smooth surface or mirror gloss, while also eliminating gloss.
Polishing related manufacturers
1. Guangdong Jinmei
2, Foshan Honghe
 
X. Etching
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Etching: Generally, the etching referred to as photochemical etching refers to removing the protective film of the region to be etched by exposure and plate development, and contacting the chemical solution during etching to achieve dissolution and corrosion, thereby forming the effect of unevenness or hollowing.
Process flow:
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Exposure method: the project is based on the pattern to prepare the material size - material preparation - material cleaning - drying → film or coating → drying → exposure → development → drying - etching → stripping → OK
Screen printing method: cutting material → cleaning sheet (stainless steel other metal materials) → screen printing → etching → stripping → OK
Technical features:
advantage:
1. Fine processing of metal surfaces;
2. Give special effects to the metal surface;
Disadvantages: Corrosive liquids (acids, alkalis, etc.) used in etching are mostly harmful to the environment.
Etching related manufacturers
1. Zhuhai Lianhui
2, Guangdong Jinmei
 
 
Plastic surface treatment
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First, in-mold decoration technology (IMD)
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In-Mold Decoration-IMD: The film with the printed pattern is placed in a metal mold, and the resin for molding is injected into the metal mold to bond with the film to make the film with the pattern printed. A method of forming a resin into a single body and solidifying into a finished product.
IMD contains IML (no stretch, small surface), IMF (high tensile product, 3D), IMR (surface film removed, leaving only the ink on the surface).
At present, IML and IMF are collectively referred to as IML.
IML process flow:
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IMR process flow:
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Technical features:
1. Exquisite decorative graphic and logo are hidden inside, and disappear without friction or chemical corrosion;
2. The graphic, logo and color design can be changed at any time without changing the mold;
3, three-dimensional shape products, printing accuracy, error ± 0.05mm;
4, can provide graphics, logo back light transmission and high light transmission window effect;
5. The function button has uniform convexity and good hand feeling, and the service life can reach more than 1 million times;
6, three-dimensional changes, can increase the designer's freedom of product design;
7, composite molding processing to achieve a seamless effect.
 
Second, spraying (Painting)
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Spraying: A method of spraying on a coated workpiece by atomizing the paint with a spray tool such as a spray gun.
Process: injection → primer → drying → topcoat → drying
Technical features:
advantage:
1, rich in color;
2, processing in a liquid environment, can achieve the surface treatment of complex structures;
3. The process is mature and mass production;
4, has a unique transparency, high gloss.
Disadvantages:
1. The cost is too high, and low-cost positioning products are not suitable for this process;
2. The process is relatively complicated and the yield is low.
 
Third, NCVM non-conductive vacuum plating
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NCVM: Also known as discontinuous coating technology or non-conducting electroplating technology, it is a film that is plated with metal and insulating compound. With its discontinuous characteristics, the final appearance has a metallic texture and does not affect the wireless communication transmission.
Process flow:
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Technical features:
1. The manufactured product is non-conductive and can be tested by high voltage meter with high voltage of tens of thousands of volts. It is not conductive or is not broken down.
2. The surface of the manufactured product has a metallic texture and can achieve translucent control.
 
Fourth, plating
金属表面处理
 
Plating: Provides plastics with a metallic finish at a higher yield and lower cost. Similar to PVD, PVD is a physical principle, electroplating is electroless plating, and is mainly divided into vacuum plating and water plating.
Process flow:
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Water plating process
Technical features:
advantage:
1. Weight reduction;
2. Comprehensive cost savings;
3. Less processing steps;
4. Simulate metal parts.
Disadvantages:
1, including the metal insert can not be changed during the molding process;
2. Molding of parts larger than 200 square inches is more difficult than casting of the die;
3. There is a danger of fire when electroplating plastic is used in certain types of household appliances.
 
Fifth, printing
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Plastic parts printing: a process of printing desired patterns on the surface of plastic parts by pad printing, screen printing, transfer, etc.
Pad printing: is an indirect concave plastic head printing technology. The design pattern is first etched on the printing plate, the etched plate is coated with ink, and then most of the ink is transferred to the object to be printed through the silicone head. on.
Screen printing: It is a main printing method in stencil printing: the printing plate is in the form of a mesh, and the ink on the printing plate is printed on the printing plate through the through-hole portion of the printing plate under the squeeze of the squeegee. Usually the screen is made of nylon, polyester, silk or metal mesh.
Transfer: water transfer, thermal transfer
Water transfer: a type of printing in which a transfer paper/plastic film with a color pattern is subjected to macromolecular hydrolysis by water pressure.
Thermal transfer: A technique in which a pattern or pattern is printed on a heat-resistant adhesive tape, and the pattern of the ink layer is printed on the finished material by heating and pressurizing.
 
Six, laser carving
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Laser engraving: also called laser engraving or laser marking, is a process of surface treatment by optical principle. Similar to screen printing, laser engraving can be used to type or pattern on the surface of the product.
Technical features:
1. Wide range, safe and reliable
2, accurate and meticulous, safe and fast
3. Low cost and environmental protection
 
Seven, biting flowers
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Biting flower: It is a method of etching the inside of a plastic molding die with a chemical such as concentrated sulfuric acid to form a pattern in the form of serpentine, etched, plowed, etc., and the plastic has a corresponding texture on the surface after molding through a mold.
Process flow:
Mold receiving → sand blasting → chemical cleaning (pickling) → decaling → picking powder → heating → Shangyang → dry paint → chemical corrosion → chemical cleaning → sand blasting → quality inspection
Technical features:
1. Improve the visual effect and feel of the product
2, slip
3, increase the surface area, which is conducive to heat dissipation
4, is conducive to demoulding, easy to shape
金属表面处理
Glass surface treatment
Metal surface treatment
 
First, glass tempering (physical)
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Tempered glass: It is actually a kind of prestressed glass. Chemical or physical methods are usually used to increase the strength of the glass. The compressive stress is formed on the surface of the glass. When the glass is subjected to external force, the surface stress is first offset, thereby improving the bearing capacity, enhancing the wind resistance of the glass itself, cold and heat, and impact.
Process flow:
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Features: Tempered glass has high impact strength (4 to 5 times higher than ordinary flat glass), high bending strength (5 times higher than ordinary flat glass), good thermal stability, smooth, transparent, anti-fingerprint and so on.
 
Second, glass tempering (chemical) - ion exchange method
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Ion exchange: ion exchange method tempered glass is a form of glass tempering, which belongs to chemical tempering, that is, intrusion of glass into an alkali metal salt in a molten state, exchange of Na+ and K+, and then cooling.
Process: original film inspection → cutting → edging → cleaning and drying → low temperature preheating → high temperature preheating → ion exchange → high temperature cooling → medium temperature cooling → low temperature cooling → cleaning and drying → inspection → packaging and storage
Technical features:
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1, very strong, scratch-resistant, will not produce traces
2, anti-crushing, anti-cracking.
 
Third, polishing
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Glass polishing: refers to the use of chemical or physical methods to remove the grain lines, scratches and some other flaws on the surface of the glass, improve the transparency and refractive index of the glass, and make the glass more vitrified.
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The polishing method mainly includes:
1, fire polishing
2, polishing powder polishing
3, acid polishing
4, mechanical polishing
 
Fourth, printing
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Printing: Glass printing can be done by screen printing, inkjet printing and transfer printing. Most of them are still screen printing.
Screen printing: Screen printing is one of the main printing methods in stencil printing: the printing plate is in the form of a mesh, and the ink on the printing plate is printed from the through-hole portion of the printing plate to the substrate under the extrusion of the squeegee. on. Usually the screen is made of nylon, polyester, silk or metal mesh.

Fifth, coating
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Glass coating: It is the application of one or more layers of metal film or metal compound on the surface of the glass to change the optical and physical properties of the glass.
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Technical features:
1, the sun transmission rate is good
2, single perspective function and specular reflection effect
3. Protect privacy
4, long-lasting performance
 
Six, AF Coating
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AF Coating: The surface of Lens is coated with a nano-grade coating by vapor deposition. The coating will fill the pores of the Lens surface more densely, making dirt and oil difficult to adhere to Lens. The surface can be easily wiped off even if it is applied to the Lens.
Technical features:
Oil and dirt proof
Anti-fingerprint (fingerprint easy to erase)

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